Monday, December 19, 2011

What is GMAT 100% preparation-Workshop- Dec 25th

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Tuesday, December 6, 2011

"100 points more" GMAT workshop Dec 11– registration form

Who should attend:
if you are a
Repeater- You want to improve your score by atleast 100 points
First timer- You want to know what it takes to cross the 700 barrier in the GMAT
then do attend this workshop
Topics covered:
1. Strategies to boost your score in problem solving,data sufficiency,sentence correction and critical

reasoning sections.
2. 5 must do before taking the exam
3. 5 pitfalls which must be avoided at all costs during the exam
in addition

each of you will get a customized study plan in accordance to the number of days left before you take the exam
Do inform your friends who would be interested in the program.
Fill in the form and book your seat immediately


Friday, December 2, 2011

Which business schools have produced the most entrepreneurs?

I got this information through a certain website though i could share it with you all...


Which business schools have produced the most entrepreneurs?
A recently published LinkedIn study examined the backgrounds of members who identify themselves as startup founders and came up with the leading schools for entrepreneurs.
The results dramatically differ from the two most-cited yet deeply flawed rankings of leading entrepreneurial programs by Princeton Review and U.S. News & World Report. By sifting through its more than 120 million member profiles, LinkedIn has produced the ideal “put up or shut up” analysis. It’s the kind of data that calls out schools that have made entrepreneurship a marketing or promotional vehicle vs. those that have produced actual startup entrepreneurs.

LinkedIn membership data shows these five schools produced the most startup founders:
Stanford,
Harvard,
MIT Sloan,
Berkeley’s Haas School, and
Dartmouth College’s Tuck School.

The next five are Wharton, Columbia, Babson, Virginia Darden, and the Johnson School at Cornell University.

Why the results are surprising
Babson, which has long been number one in both rankings, does no better than eighth place. Tuck, which fails to make the U.S. News list of 27 schools or the Princeton Review list of 25 schools, is firmly in the top five.
Columbia Business School, which doesn’t make the Princeton Review list and comes in at 19th on U.S. News, has the seventh largestnumber of startup founders in LinkedIn’s database. Chicago Booth, which is ranked second by Princeton Review, doesn’t make the LinkedIn list at all. Neither does Michigan, Brigham Young, or the University of Arizona, all schools in Princeton Review’s top five.
A side-by-side comparison (below) of the LinkedIn list with the two other rankings tells the story well. Seven of LinkedIn’s top ten schools don’t even warrant a mention in the Princeton Review ranking. LinkedIn’s number one school, Stanford, ranks a mere eighth on the Princeton Review list. Two of LinkedIn’s top ten schools don’t make the U.S. News list even though it rates 27 schools.

LinkedIn Rank & School U.S. News Rank Princeton Review
1. Stanford                         2                     8
2. Harvard Business School 4                    NR
3. MIT Sloan                         3                    NR
4. California-Berkeley (Haas) 6                   NR
5. Dartmouth (Tuck)               NR               NR
6. Pennsylvania (Wharton) 5                   NR
7. Columbia Business School 19                    NR
8. Babson                                  1                      1
9. Virginia (Darden)           14                        7
10. Cornell (Johnson)           NR                      NR
Source: LinkedIn study, U.S. News, and Princeton Review

Of course, not every entrepreneur may have a LinkedIn profile and even those that do may not fall within the parameters of the professional network site’s methodology. LinkedIn counted members who identified themselves as founders or co-founders of U.S. companies created after 2000, with a LinkedIn company profile, and that currently has between two and 200 employees. LinkedIn excluded small law, consulting and real estate firms, as well as LLCs. Using these guidelines, LinkedIn came up with a pool of more than 13,000 entrepreneurs for its survey.

The LinkedIn ranking is not based on raw numbers, but rather on “how ‘over-represented’ those schools are among entrepreneurs,” according to Monica Rogati, a senior data scientist at LinkedIn who did the analysis. “This levels the playing field for small schools, as you have noticed but it makes it less surprising, which is why I wanted to mention it.”

This compares with U.S. News, which simply asks b-school deans and MBA directors, to rank schools on the basis of their entrepreneurship programs—even though they have no direct knowledge of those programs. Princeton Review, meantime, may as well pull its results out of a hat. Its methodology is so unclear and unspecific that it is hard to say exactly how the ranking is put together. It supposedly attempts to measure “academics and requirements,” “students and faculty,” and “outside the classroom.” (Our critique of the ranking was published last year.)

That’s why the new LinkedIn list has more gravitas–because it is based on real results—not what a few deans think about programs for which they no knowledge or some voodoo methodology by an organization that refuses to properly disclose how it comes up with a ranking.




Which business schools have produced the most entrepreneurs?

I got this information through a certain website though i could share it with you all...


Which business schools have produced the most entrepreneurs?
A recently published LinkedIn study examined the backgrounds of members who identify themselves as startup founders and came up with the leading schools for entrepreneurs.
The results dramatically differ from the two most-cited yet deeply flawed rankings of leading entrepreneurial programs by Princeton Review and U.S. News & World Report. By sifting through its more than 120 million member profiles, LinkedIn has produced the ideal “put up or shut up” analysis. It’s the kind of data that calls out schools that have made entrepreneurship a marketing or promotional vehicle vs. those that have produced actual startup entrepreneurs.

LinkedIn membership data shows these five schools produced the most startup founders:
Stanford,
Harvard,
MIT Sloan,
Berkeley’s Haas School, and
Dartmouth College’s Tuck School.

The next five are Wharton, Columbia, Babson, Virginia Darden, and the Johnson School at Cornell University.

Why the results are surprising
Babson, which has long been number one in both rankings, does no better than eighth place. Tuck, which fails to make the U.S. News list of 27 schools or the Princeton Review list of 25 schools, is firmly in the top five.
Columbia Business School, which doesn’t make the Princeton Review list and comes in at 19th on U.S. News, has the seventh largestnumber of startup founders in LinkedIn’s database. Chicago Booth, which is ranked second by Princeton Review, doesn’t make the LinkedIn list at all. Neither does Michigan, Brigham Young, or the University of Arizona, all schools in Princeton Review’s top five.
A side-by-side comparison (below) of the LinkedIn list with the two other rankings tells the story well. Seven of LinkedIn’s top ten schools don’t even warrant a mention in the Princeton Review ranking. LinkedIn’s number one school, Stanford, ranks a mere eighth on the Princeton Review list. Two of LinkedIn’s top ten schools don’t make the U.S. News list even though it rates 27 schools.

LinkedIn Rank & School U.S. News Rank Princeton Review
1. Stanford                         2                     8
2. Harvard Business School 4                    NR
3. MIT Sloan                         3                    NR
4. California-Berkeley (Haas) 6                   NR
5. Dartmouth (Tuck)               NR               NR
6. Pennsylvania (Wharton) 5                   NR
7. Columbia Business School 19                    NR
8. Babson                                  1                      1
9. Virginia (Darden)           14                        7
10. Cornell (Johnson)           NR                      NR
Source: LinkedIn study, U.S. News, and Princeton Review

Of course, not every entrepreneur may have a LinkedIn profile and even those that do may not fall within the parameters of the professional network site’s methodology. LinkedIn counted members who identified themselves as founders or co-founders of U.S. companies created after 2000, with a LinkedIn company profile, and that currently has between two and 200 employees. LinkedIn excluded small law, consulting and real estate firms, as well as LLCs. Using these guidelines, LinkedIn came up with a pool of more than 13,000 entrepreneurs for its survey.

The LinkedIn ranking is not based on raw numbers, but rather on “how ‘over-represented’ those schools are among entrepreneurs,” according to Monica Rogati, a senior data scientist at LinkedIn who did the analysis. “This levels the playing field for small schools, as you have noticed but it makes it less surprising, which is why I wanted to mention it.”

This compares with U.S. News, which simply asks b-school deans and MBA directors, to rank schools on the basis of their entrepreneurship programs—even though they have no direct knowledge of those programs. Princeton Review, meantime, may as well pull its results out of a hat. Its methodology is so unclear and unspecific that it is hard to say exactly how the ranking is put together. It supposedly attempts to measure “academics and requirements,” “students and faculty,” and “outside the classroom.” (Our critique of the ranking was published last year.)

That’s why the new LinkedIn list has more gravitas–because it is based on real results—not what a few deans think about programs for which they no knowledge or some voodoo methodology by an organization that refuses to properly disclose how it comes up with a ranking.




Friday, November 18, 2011

Great Lakes institute of management makes great strides.

A GLIM-mer of hope for the B-school -starved Chennai, Great Lake’s meteoric rise in business education, with an international feel, is a blessing to the city. Other than institutes such as LIBA and IFMR , Chennai does not have many B schools of repute. Now Great Lakes is filling that gap. And duly. With a bouquet of courses to suit both freshers and executive with work experience, and with one other campus in Gurgaon, a corporate hub, Great Lakes is fast becoming one of the sought after destinations for top MBA aspirants.

Ensconced on ECR, closer to the IT hub, and in the manufacturing capital of South India,Great Lakes’ industry interaction is one of its trump cards. Besides, it offers industry- relevant management courses for working professionals, the PGWPM; PGWPM-energy, prepares professionals for the largest sector- energy.

New 2yr PGDM
Great Lakes is introducing 2-year PGDM( equivalent to MBA) program beginning academic session July 2012, according to a press release. The program is open to candidates with 0- 2 yrs of experience, the seats available being 120. Now freshers too can have the Great Lakes advantage. A unique feature of the program is the tie up with colleges abroad for student and faculty exchange, and semester- abroad component, defining further, its motto – global mindsets, Indian roots. PGDM specializations will comprise- operations, finance, strategy, IT and System and , International Business.

The reputed 1 year PGPM program already offered by the institute, has an intake of 300 students per year. To seek admission to PGPM (1year), PGDM (2yr) programs applicant can take CAT/XAT/GMAT exams. Cut-offs and other details can be obtained from the institute website.

Contributed by
Dr. Vijayakumari
GMAT trainer @ GMAT superia-semantics




Wednesday, November 2, 2011

GMAT fast-track for the test season

A GMAT program designed for the busy you

Workshop-based higher order interactives

-Exhaustive SC concepts

-inductive -deductive logic for CR

-inferential reading

-Higher order problem solving

-Data sufficiency
Program director- Dr Vijayakumari-Chief GMAT trainer
Watch a preview


Duration:30 hrs from Nov 15th to Dec 15th

Call 044-42068494 or 9884123808 to book your seat
www.gmatsuperia.com

Friday, October 21, 2011

GMAT CR tips

GMAT CR tip
be aware of the most common ways in which reasoning can go wrong. this will help spot them in CR arguments as well as
guard against these errors in your essay writing.
some of those ways are
- confusing cause and effect
- using unpresentative statistics
- employing faulty analogy
- drawing hasty generalisation
more of these you may get at our website- www.semanticslearning.com

GMAT sentence correction tips

GMAT sentence correction tip

check each sentence for semantics( meaning conveyed) and syntax( the grammatical structure and conformity).
syntax is altered to convey the meaning aptly, not the other way around.

in addition to these two, terseness is important- being economical with words
caution: if being terse, ie reducing words, lead to ambiguity, length is welcome.
here are two eg.

eg. 1.
ambiguous: Piaget noted that in children a repertoire of skills is acquired during preschool period and need further
strengthening through organized learning experienced at school.

what needs strengthening is ambiguous, so we need to repeat some words

Piaget noted that in children a repertoire of skills is acquired during preschool period and these skills need further
strengthening through organized learning experienced at school.


eg 2- a wordy sentence
The houses were mostly well built in construction, but the interior furnishing within the house left much
to be desired.
economical
the houses were mostly well- built, but the interiors left much to be desired.

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Road map to worlds top universities

Topics covered
1.Deadlines of top colleges
2.Study options abroad- countrywise breakup
3.MBA options for fresher's
4.How to finance your studies abroad?
5.Indian banks scenario
6.Admission process for MS
7.Approx costing info to do MS abroad
8.Finance certificates
9.Funding options
10.Scholarship options for indian students
11.Contact our resource personal

For more info email to enquiry@semanticslearning.com

Watch the presentation

Tuesday, October 11, 2011

US and European grad schools- Admission services workshop


semantics invites you to 
“Roadmap to the world’s best Universities & colleges- Admission services workshop”
Date: Oct 15th Time: 5:00pm
Venue: Semantics,#34 Jumbulingam St, Nungambakkam,Chennai -34, off Valuvarkottam high road, opp
canara bank, Nungambakkam. Ph: 044-42068494

To register: sms name and email id to 9884123808 or 044-42068494

Workshop includes:
Special session on: 
•Navigating complicated admission procedures of the Top 100 universities of the world
•Guidance on SOP’s, Recommendation letters
•Scholarships
•Visa counselling and more

Special offers on admission services packages

Profile of the speaker
DR. DEBJANI BANERJEE:
Admission counselor for various organisations including Career Plan and IMS. Has excellent track record of placements in the most reputed institutions in US, UK and Singapore. A PhD in English, Dr. Banerjee brings rich experience in teaching and administration at US universities and colleges in UK in order to help her students plan their careers. She uses her skills as a published writer to help her students present their profile and their strengths. She has taught in various international classrooms and in e-learning environments and this varied experience underpins her work as a global education expert. 
Dr.Debjani heads the Admission Assistance Cell (AAC) at Semantics.




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Friday, September 30, 2011

5 most crucial points while solving. Permutation combinations



ARRANGMENT
N terms can be arranged in N! factorial ways, if each position can be occupied by one term.
N terms can be arranged in N^M where. Each position can be occupied by 1 term or 2 terms or …… N terms. M stands for the number of positions to be filled.

COMBINATION

M terms can be selected from P terms in PCm ways.
In certain situations it is required to first choose the terms and then arrange the terms. i.e. PERMUTATION.

Permutation = combination x arrangement.

4. When N objects are distributed among P positions such that each position can get any number of objects (zero, one, two ……N) then the number of ways of arranging the items is N+P-1Cp-1

5. When N objects are distributed among P positions such that each position can get atleast one objet (one, two ……N) then the number of ways of arranging the items is N-1Cp+1

5 crucial points while solving a probability based problem.
1. Calculate the numerator {Nos. of foverable terms} and the denominator {Total number of terms} separately using the concepts of arrangement, permutation and combination.
2. TAKE IT PERSONAL : Always imagine you are arranging / selecting the items. The action of taking the object and placing it in the relevant position is the key.
3. When two or more items are picked it is easier to compute the probability of picking one element at a time than computing the probability of picking many items at a time.
4. When A and B are selected relate the respective probabilities with multiplicataion. When either A or B is selected relate the respective probabilities with addition.
5. When the multiple outcomes are possible the probability of atleast one of them happening is computed by calculating the reverse probability = 1 – probability of event not happening.




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Wednesday, September 14, 2011

GMAT sentence correction- tips

GMAT sentence correction: Think beyond grammar
Fine, you know the GMAT SC jargon – tense error, pronoun error, subject verb disagreement. Good. Useful. But you must think beyond grammar to do justice to the range SC questions.
One of such errors is ambiguity. That is something is not clear. To make clear the meaning conveyed. So keep track of meaning also while checking a sentence for errors.
Illustration - real GMAT qns
1. Incorrect: In mammals, a lifetime’s supply of egg cells are produced during fetal development and remain dormant until maturity.

Here remain dormant is ambiguously used; one may ask what remain egg cells or development? In such cases, we need to repeat the word, cells, since these remain dormant until maturity. The verb is agrees with the singular sub lifetime’s supply.
Correct … is produced during fetal development and the cells remain dormant until maturity.

2. In 1869, anxious to balance its population of 8,000 men and 2,000 women, the Wyoming legislature extended voting rights to women in Wyoming.

A. its population of 8,000 men and 2,000 women, the Wyoming legislature
B. their population of 8,000 men and 2,000 women, the Wyoming’s legislature
C. the state’s population of 8,000 men and 2,000 women, the Wyoming legislature
D. a state population of 8,000 men and 2,000 women, the legislature in Wyoming
E. its population of 8,000 men with 2,000 women, the Wyoming’s legislature
So since you know that singular pronouns agree with singular nouns, its agrees with Wyoming legislature. But grammar alone wont rescue us here.
Look at the meaning, can Wyoming legislature have population? No the population belongs to the state, C is clear and exact. D, would mean any state’s population, not necessarily Wyoming’s.
Moral of the story
Attention to detail…is very important..keep looking out for similar errors; match grammar with meaning.







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GMAT tips to score more..

Ten ways to score poorly in GMAT! If you are rich enough for retakes, that is
1. I know math, so no need to go thru the same old arithmetic, algebra, geometry stuff
2. Tones of free downloads on your pc..what is relevant, what is not, even God may not know..
3. Just official guide, what else, nothing official about it…
4. I will join for the costliest, longest duration course in town…let them get me the score, no need to study at home..
5. I wont do the essays while practicing, only math and verbal mock exams will do
6. I speak and write good English, so verbal is going to be a cake walk, no less
7. I need just one month for preparation, after all I had high grades in college.
8. Do as many tests as possible, in fact 90 percent of my preparation time should be spent on tests. concepts? What concepts?
9. My friend said GMAT was easy for him, no tough qns ( hey, what was your friend’s score?)
10. Out of five tests I did, one test I scores above 650. So I will give the test as planned. I believe in luck!
PS Good luck

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Friday, September 2, 2011

how to tackle the Bold face GMAT Critical reasoning question


Bold face GMAT CR......not a sweat....read further

Study the example below.

Museums that house renaissance oil paintings typically store them in environments that are carefully kept within narrow margins of temperature and humidity to inhibit any deterioration. Laboratory tests have shown that the kind of oil paint use in these paintings actually adjusts to climatic changes quite well. If, as some museum directors believe, paint is the most sensitive substance in these works, then by relaxing the standards for temperature and humidity control, museums can reduce energy costs without risking damage to these paintings. Museums would be rash to relax those standards, however, since results of
preliminary tests indicate that gesso, a compound routinely used by renaissance artists to help paint adhere to the canvas, is unable to withstand significant variations in humidity.

In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. the first is an objection that has been raised against the position taken by the argument, the second is the position by the argument.
B. the first is the position taken by the argument the second is the position that the argument calls into question.
C. the first is a judgement that has been offered in support of the position that the argument calls into question; the second is a circumstance on which the judgement is in part, based.
D. the first is a judgment that has been offered in support of the position that the argument calls into question; the second is that position.
E. the first is a claim that the argument calls into question; the second is the position taken by the argument.

Strategy:
1. Read the overall para closely.
2. Take one bold statement at a time, analyse how this statement impacts the entire argument, including the other statement in bold.
3. Take the other statement in bold; analyse the impact of this statement in the argument in general.
4. You are not merely to establish relationship between the two statements in bold.
We can see in the above para that the first bold statement supports the second bold statement. The second statement is opposed later ( museums would be rash…) the supporting statement comes in the form of a judgment. ‘Paint is the most sensitive substance’ is a judgment, which serves as the evidence on which the claim is made.
We eliminate options B and D because the first is not the claim ( conclusion); the first is not an objection. C and D both correctly refer to the first as a judgment, but in C the second is considered a situation on which the first is based, which is an incorrect relationship. So the answer is D.

Thursday, August 25, 2011

critical reading for GMAT RC section

To ace the reading comprehension section you need to be a critical reader. Easier said than done.

Test aspirants usually skim(passively glance at a passage picking up few points here and there)through a passage. Then they take a look at the question. All the options seems correct. You are back to square 1.

Critical reading involves 3 levels of understanding and evaluation
First:Grasp the overall idea or the main point of the passage along with the general organization
Second:subject the specific details to greater scrutiny and explain what something means and why it was introduced.
Third: Evaluate what the author has written, what further conclusions can be drawn and judge whether the argument is good or bad.
Let me take you through one passage and lets critically read that passage.

First go through the passage:
According to Shaw mere diversity and disagreement on what is considered morally right is not enough reason to claim that there is no objective truth, nor a standard by which we can try to arrive at it and so there is no reason to worry about the claims of the relativist. I do not fully agree with Shaw’s disputation against the diversity argument for meta-ethical relativism although I do agree that the diversity argument does not entirely rule out the possibility of objective morality. I simply do not feel that this is the argument’s whole intention in the first place. Rather it is claiming that we as a global nation will never grasp this objective truth which does raise the question of whether there can be such a thing, and with this I do agree. 

It is reasonable to see how moral truth can be considered different for different groups. Shaw outlines different theories which intend to weaken the relativist’s argument, including those of Naturalism, Intuitionism, and Emotivism, which I might add, are all themselves flawed in some way, but no real conclusion is reached as to how perfectly they prove to fault relativism. But then I ask why a rational person would spend any time defending or relying on something that he cannot fully understand, based on the fact that relativism cannot completely rule out the possibility of objectivity. Moral Relativism states that there are no objective truths or morals, but that these are conditional and dependent on a number of factors. It has two main claims: a) ‘there are no universally valid standards’ and b) ‘the validity of moral standards is dependent on cultural acceptance (Conventionalism) or personal choice or commitment (Subjectivism).’ Shaw is trying to undermine the meta-ethical diversity theory on the basis that just because we cannot see it does not mean that it’s not there. When we discuss diversity in ethics we do not only look at diversity at this present time, but also look back to the past and debate about how we should go about deciphering a new, universal moral system.

Now lets read critically
(According to Shaw mere diversity and disagreement on what is considered morally right is not enough reason to claim that there is no objective truth, nor a standard by which we can try to arrive at it and so there is no reason to worry about the claims of the relativist.) <---- shaws claim ( I do not fully)<-----author doesn’t agree agree with Shaw’s disputation against the diversity argument for meta-ethical relativism although( I do agree)<-----author agrees that the diversity argument does not entirely rule out the possibility of objective morality. I simply do not feel that this (is the argument’s)<-----attacking shaws argument whole intention in the first place. Rather it is claiming that we as a global nation will never grasp this objective truth which does raise the question of whether there can be such a thing, and with this I do agree. )<-----author doesn’t agree with whose claim: relativist’s or shaw’s

It is reasonable to see how moral truth can be considered different for different groups. Shaw outlines different theories which intend to weaken the relativist’s argument, including those of Naturalism, Intuitionism, and Emotivism,<-----why does the author introduce these things which I might add, are all themselves flawed in some way, but no real conclusion is reached as to how perfectly they prove to fault relativism. But then I ask why a rational person would spend any time defending or relying on something that he cannot fully understand, based on the fact that relativism cannot completely rule out the possibility of objectivity. <-----explains shaws argument Moral Relativism states that there are no objective truths or morals<----- relativists claim, but that these are conditional and dependent on a number of factors. It has two main claims: a) ‘there are no universally valid standards’ and b) ‘the validity of moral standards is dependent on cultural acceptance (Conventionalism) or personal choice or commitment (Subjectivism).’ Shaw is trying to undermine<-----explains shaws flaw the meta-ethical diversity theory on the basis that just because we cannot see it does not mean that it’s not there. When we discuss diversity in ethics we do not only look at diversity at this present time, but also look back to the past and debate about how we should go about deciphering a new, universal moral system. <-----attacks shaws claim with counter argument
----------------------------
My comments are marked in red.

Did you notice :There are 3 perspectives being put forth in the passage: relativists, shaw and author. Did you understand how the passage was constructed? What is the claim? What is the argument?What is the counter argument which is presented and so on...... This is a sneak peak into critical reading. To ace the exam read every passage critically and trust me if you don’t have it in you. You can be taught to read critically in under 15hrs.

Wednesday, August 17, 2011

Reasoning & Its types

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Excerpts from the it works* module

Argument analysis

In the last academic year Pearl City College had poor results. This year fewer parents are admitting their children to the college. Therefore, the principal should be replaced.

Analyse every argument into its components

In the above argument there are two premises and a conclusion.

Premise 1 : In the last academic year the college had poor results.

Premise 2 : Fewer parents are admitting their children to the college this year.

Conclusion : The principal should be replaced.

Assumption : (what is not stated) – The principal was solely responsible for the poor results (This assumption is made, otherwise why is this solution suggested, why not any other solution?)

Five Common forms of inductive reasoning

(i) Exemplar argument or inductive generalization- is an argument in which a generalization is claimed to be likely on the basis of information about some members of a particular class.

(ii) A causal argument asserts or denies that something is the cause of something else.

(iii) A statistical argument rests on statistical evidence i.e., conclusion derived from evidence that some percentage of some group has some particular characteristic.

(iv) In an argument from analogy, the conclusion is claimed to depend on a similarity between two or more things.

(v) A predictive argument is about what may happen in the future defended with past or present experiences.

Question types

Line of Reasoning

A type of CR question in the GMAT requires you to identify the line of reasoning used in the argument.

line of reasoning is not the evidence, but what sort of evidence.

This question type requires you to analyze an argument and identify the logic used. In other words, HOW the conclusion is derived

eHere’s the all-important list of logic used in presenting arguments:

1. Appealing to reason / emotion

2. Offering a counter example

3. Presenting cause-effect relationship

4. Presenting quantified data

5. Drawing analogy

6. Presenting contrasting ideas

7. Providing examples

Common errors

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Common Errors in GMAT sentence correction

4.1 Subject verb disagreement

In a given sentence the subject and verb should agree in number.

Illustration 1

Incorrect: When temperature increases, the ice caps melt and presumably, causes flood in summer.

Correct: When temperature increases, the ice caps melt and presumably, cause flood in summer.

Both melt and causes are verbs of the subject ice caps but causes a singular verb doesn’t agree with the plural noun ice caps.

4.2. Parallelism

In writing, parallelism means ‘similar, having close resemblance’. When two or more ideas in a sentence are alike in purpose, they should be expressed in the same grammatical form.

Parallel structure of a sentence means balancing

(1) a word with a word

(2) balancing of a phrase with a phrase

(3) balancing a clause with a clause

(4) balancing a sentence with a sentence

(5) balancing a noun with a noun, verb with a verb

Incorrect: Nick is young, clever and has talent.

Correct: Nick is young, clever and talented.

Incorrect: Nick likes reading and to write.

Correct: Nick likes reading and writing.

4.3 Idiomatic constructions

Every language has a set of idioms. Idioms convey appropriate meaning.

Illustration 1

Incorrect: Some of’ the biographers of Leonardo have actually expressed regret that such a man, endowed by divine artistic genius would waste precious years of his life on such a lowly pursuit like engineering.

Correct: Some of the biographers of Leonardo have actually expressed regret that such a man, endowed with divine artistic genius would waste precious years of his life on such a lowly pursuit as engineering.

Noun – pronoun agreement

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Excerpts from the usage 25* module

Noun – pronoun agreement

U Rule 1: Do not use forms of the same pronoun to refer to different antecedents.

Incorrect: The teacher told John that he thought his work was improving.

(Does the teacher think that his own work is improving, or that John's work is improving?)

Correct: John was told by his teacher that his work was improving.

U Rule 2: Place the pronoun as closely as possible to its antecedent, to avoid ambiguity or confusion.

Ambiguous: When Mark spoke to his boss, he was very polite.

Clear: Mark was very polite when he spoke to his boss.

2.1 Rules for subject verb use

Now familiarise yourself with these rules

U Rule 1: Collective nouns, mostly singular in forms, can sometimes be plural requiring plural verb.

The council has unanimously passed the ordinance.

The team have won the match.

Common collective nouns are:

Assembly, board, team, cabinet, class, couple, firm, family, minority, majority, press, public, staff, association

U Rule 2: All, most, none, some can be singular plural depending on the nouns following

They are singular when followed by non-countable nouns and are plural when followed by countable nouns.

Some of my allowance has been spent.

Some of our athletes have been awarded letters.

Half of this report is to be completed by Saturday.

eRemember this while studying tenses

1. Use simple present in conditional clause

You will recover soon if you take your medicines on time.

I shall meet him in his office if he reaches early.

(Conditional clauses begin with if, when, till, until or unless.)

2. Use past perfect in conditional clause, along with ‘would’

I would have spoken to him, if I had recognized him.

3. Along with while (which denotes an ongoing activity) use continuous tense

While I was walking on the road, I saw an accident.

4. Use past perfect to denote the first and completed activity in the past, when an activity that followed is mentioned

We had decorated the house before the guests arrived.
(Here the completed activity is decorated)

The second activity arrived is in simple past.

In Standard English like is used as a preposition with no following verb.

Incorrect: You must do like the manager tells you.

Correct: You must do as the manager tells you.

U 1. Use of ‘not only … but also’

Robinson is not only enterprising but also persevering.

Andre plays not only cricket but also soccer.

Angela not only sings but also writes.

Conjunctions – and, but, either...or, neither...nor, not...only...but also, though, although, either … or

The management has decided either to invite the union for negotiation or to close the factory for an indefinite period till the problems tide over.

The management has decided to solve the problem either through dialogue or through mediation.

U 2. Use of ‘for’ and ‘since’

For as a preposition: There are reasons for the present situation.

For to denote duration of time: I have been waiting for two hours.

For as a conjunction: We have decided to take Alex for the job, for he has prior experience.

Since as a conjunction I could not meet him since I was late to the airport.

Since to indicate duration of time: The Williams family has been living in California since 1985.

For indicates a definite period of time, whereas since expresses the time an action started.


Passage- Identify the tone

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Directions: read the passage and recognise the tone of the discussion.

Passage

One of the most important of the natural sponges that soak up carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is working 30 percent less efficiently than a quarter of a century ago. The Southern Ocean is responsible for soaking up the annual CO2 contribution of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands combined, but the study shows that the ocean is absorbing the same quantity of the gas as it was 24 years ago. Scientists had expected that the amount of CO2 absorbed would increase in line with rising levels in the atmosphere. The change is due to increased winds over the ocean linked to climate change and the depleted ozone layer. This is serious. All climate models predict that this kind of ‘feedback’ will continue and intensify during this century. The so called carbon sinks such as the oceans, vegetation and soils soak up around half of the extra CO2 we are pumping into the atmosphere each year. The Southern Ocean alone is responsible for parcelling up to 0.7 billion tones a year and storing it in the deep.

Since the 1980s the Southern Ocean sink for carbon has not changed at all, although CO2 emissions over the same period has increased. It is expected that as the emissions and the CO2 in the atmosphere have increased, the Southern Ocean sink should also increase. The scientists believe the reason for the change is an increase in average wind speed across the ocean. More water circulation and mixing bring colder water up from the depths that is saturated with CO2, so that it cannot accept any more from the atmosphere. The increase in wind speed is partly a consequence of climate change itself. The world is warming unevenly and pressure differences between different regions are increasing wind speed in the Southern Ocean. The depletion of the ozone layer has also contributed to higher winds.

Which of the following most accurately summarises the tone of the passage?

A. Unbiased description

B. Guarded disapproval

C. Subtle criticism

D. Glaring pessimism

E. Authoritative exposition

Option analysis

The answer is A

The author is describing a natural phenomenon as it is. Though there is cause for concern, one cannot call it pessimism. Since the information is accompanied by empirical evidence it cannot be considered ‘reasoning by authority’, therefore not E.

Here’s a list of tone terms.

Objective assessment: (dispassionate / disinterested presentation)
The author reacts to a piece of work not influenced by personal feelings or prejudice. Assessing a piece of work based on its own inherent reality than by the evaluator’s whims and fancies; judgment done for the intrinsic criteria of the work itself

Biased interpretation: (subjective / prejudiced)
An author’s opinion or feeling that strongly
favours one side of an argument, sometimes unfairly

Skepticism: This would imply criticism, doubt or questioning the logic of an argument. This expresses the author’s disagreement with a hypothesis, idea, proposition, finding of a study and the like

Pointed disagreement: Sharp criticism / unrelenting criticism; the author disagrees with an idea completely. There will be explicit statements in the passage denoting this

Qualified admiration: (Limited / restricted endorsement)
Here the author is quite specific in his approval; he admires the person / idea discussed for certain qualities and may be critical of certain other aspects

Grudging respect / approval: This is characterized by unwillingness from the part of the author to concede completely to the idea; he expresses his opinion reluctantly

Optimism / hope: The author would express hope and expectation in say, solving a problem, implementing a recommendation

Enthusiastic endorsement: The author wholeheartedly approves of the idea and / or supports the findings, recommendations or propositions

Eulogy: Extreme praise for a person referred to or topic of discussion

Satirical: The author expresses scorn / ridicule / derision; he laughs at ideas or people

Ironical: The author uses words to convey the opposite meaning of what he expresses. One thing is said and its opposite is implied

GMAT jargon

Take home Some GMAT jargon. Jus gorge on them

Yes, you heard it right…there are words typical to GMAT verbal ( critical reasoning and reading comprehension).. here’s a list comes handy in RC/CR.

Allusion : Indirect reference to a person, place or event to another.

Archaism : The use of words and expressions that have become obsolete in common speech.

Burlesque : An incognito imitation; it imitates the matter or form of a play in an amusing manner.

Connotation and denotation : The denotation of a word is its primary meaning; connotation is the range of accompanying meanings in which it suggests or implies.

Motif and theme : A motif is an element – an incident, device or formula – which recurs frequently.

Prosody : Systematic study of writing verse (poem); principles in the use of rhyme, stanza etc.

Anecdote : Simple narration of a single incident.

Pastoral elegy : Represents both the mourner and the one he mourns.

Figurative language : Deviates from what we apprehend as the standard significance or sequence of words, in order to achieve special meaning or effect.

Symbol : A word or set of words that signifies an object or event which itself signifies something else.

historicism : A theory that history is determined by unchangeable laws and not by human agency or, it is a theory that all cultural phenomena are historically determined and that historians much study each period without imposing any personal or absolute value system.

Historical School : A school of economics maintaining that any economic theory must be based on historical studies of economic institutions.

Idealism : A philosophical system or theory that maintains that are real is of the nature of thought or that the object of external perception consists of ideas; the pursuit of high noble principles.

Existentialism : A philosophical movement that stresses the individual’s position as a self-determining agent responsible for his or her own choices.

Humanism : Assumes the dignity and central position of man in the universe and emphasizes on moral and practical rather than purely aesthetic values.


aberrant/aberration deviating from the norm.

aesthetic dealing with, appreciative of, or responsive to art or the beautiful.

anomaly deviation from the normal order, form, or rule, abnormality.

archaic outdated; associated with an earlier, perhaps more primitive, time.

aver to state as a fact; to confirm or support.

bolster to provide support or reinforcement.

bombast / bombastic self–evident or pompous writing or speech; pompous; grandiloquent.

buttress to reinforce or support.

capricious inclined to change one’s mind impulsively; erratic; unpredictable.

censure to criticize severely; to officially rebuke.

cynicism an attitude or quality of belief that all people are motivated by selfishness.

derision scorn, ridicule, contemptuous treatment.

diatribe a harsh denunciation.

didactic intended to teach or instruct.

digress(ive) to turn aside; to stray from the main point.

discretion cautious reserve in speech; ability to make responsible decisions.

disinterest(ed) (edness) indifferent; free from self-interest.

dogma(tic) (tism) (tist) stubbornly opinionated.

eclectic composed of elements drawn from various sources.

elegy a mournful poem, especially one lamenting the dead.

empirical based on observation or experiment.

enigma(tic) mysterious; obscure; difficult to understand.

ephemeral brief; fleeting.

equivocate to use ambiguous language with a deceptive intent.

erudite (ition) very learned; scholarly.

esoteric intended for or understood by a small, specific group.

eulogy(ize) a speech honoring the dead.

fallacy an invalid or incorrect notion; a mistaken belief.

foster to nourish, cultivate, promote.

grandiloquence pompous speech or expression.

hackneyed rendered trite or commonplace by frequent usage.

hyperbole an exaggerated statement, often used as a figure of speech.

iconoclast one who attacks or undermines traditional conventions or institutions.

indifferent having no interest or concern; showing no bias or prejudice.

inimical damaging; harmful; malevolent.

laconic using few words; terse.

laud (able) (-tory) to praise highly.

loquacious extremely talkative.

lucid clear; easily understood.

maverick an independent individual who does not go along with a group or party.

pedant(ic)(ry) uninspired, boring academic.

pragmatic/pragmatism practical; moved by facts rather than abstract ideals.

profundity depth (usually depth of thought).

prosaic dull; unimaginative.

refute to disprove; to successfully argue against.

repudiate to refuse to have anything to do with; disown.

rhetoric the art of study of effective use of language for communication and persuasion.

satire a literary work that ridicules or criticizes a human vice through humor or derision.

specious(ness) seeming true, but actually being fallacious; misleadingly attractive.

subtle not obvious; elusive; difficult to discern.

succinct brief; concise.

superfluous exceeding what is sufficient or necessary.

tacit implied; not explicitly stated.

terse brief and concise in wording.

tirade a long and extremely critical speech; a harsh denunciation.

trenchant sharply perceptive; keen; penetrating

untenable indefensible; not viable; uninhabitable.

veracity truthfulness; honesty.

Objective assessment: (dispassionate / disinterested presentation)
The author reacts to a piece of work not influenced by personal feelings or prejudice. Assessing a piece of work based on its own inherent reality than by the evaluators whims and fancies. Judgment done through the intrinsic criteria of the work itself.

Biased interpretation: (subjective / prejudiced.)
An author’s opinion or feeling that strongly
favours one side of an argument, sometimes unfairly.

Skepticism: This would imply criticism, doubt or questioning the logic of an argument. This expresses the author’s disagreement with a hypothesis, idea, proposition, finding of a study and the like.

Pointed disagreement: Sharp criticism / unrelenting criticism; the author disagrees with an idea completely. There will be explicit statements in the passage denoting this.

Qualified admiration: (Limited / modified / restricted endorsement.)
Here the author is quite specific in his approval; he admires the person / idea discussed for certain qualities and may be critical of certain other aspects.

Grudging respect / approval: This is characterized by unwillingness from the part of the author to concede completely to the idea; he expresses his opinion reluctantly.

Optimism / hope: The author would express hope and expectation in say, solving a problem, implementing a recommendation.

Enthusiastic endorsement: The author wholeheartedly approves of the idea and / or supports the findings, recommendations or propositions.

Eulogy: Extreme praise for the author being reviewed or person or idea under discussion.

Satirical: The author expresses scorn / ridicule / derision; he laughs at the matter under discussion.

Ironical: The author uses words to convey the opposite meaning of what he expresses. One thing is said and its opposite is implied.